A 2007 study by the Goddard Institute of Space Studies and the Earth Engineering Center (EEC) of Columbia University established that the amount of solid wastes generated in a particular nation followed closely the consumption of energy.
On the average, U.S. citizens generate twice as much municipal solid wastes (MSW; about 1 metric ton per capita) as Europeans and Japanese who have nearly the same standard of living. They also use twice as much energy. Therefore, there is a lot of room for waste and energy reduction in the U.S. However, the goal of "zero waste" is unattainable as has been demonstrated by the most environmentally conscious nations, such as Japan, where every possible effort is made to promote recycling and yet they combust or gasify about 79% of their MSW (0.35 metric tons per capita).
Recycling is the next best thing to do after waste reduction and in the U.S. it has reached the average of 20% of the MSW.
Composting - both aerobic and anaerobic - is the next step in the hierarchy of waste management. It is practical only for source-separated organics; otherwise, much of the compost product is not usable as a soil conditioner and ends up in landfills. About 9% of the U.S. MSW is composted; most of it is source-separated yard wastes composted in open windrows.
Waste-to-Energy: Of the post-recycling/composting wastes of the world's urban population, nearly 200 million tons of MSW are processed in waste-to-energy (WTE) plants that recover the energy content of wastes in the form of electricity or district heating. Of the U.S. MSW, only 7% is treated in WTE plants and 63% is landfilled. In comparison only 27% of the E.U. MSW is landfilled.
Landfilling: Most of the global urban MSW, over one billion tons, is landfilled. Eventually, only inorganic, non-recyclable materials will be landfilled in most nations, as already is the case in Germany, Japan, Switzerland, Denmark, and the Netherlands. However, until there is sufficient global WTE capacity, China is rapidly becoming one of the WTE leaders and India has started to move in this direction.
Uncontrolled landfilling is a major anthropogenic source of methane, the second most important greenhouse gas affecting climate change.
Columbia University is the place to prepare you for a career that advances Sustainable Waste Management, anywhere in the world. For past theses of the Sustainable Waste Management program of the Earth and Environmental Engineering Department, please look up EEC Theses.
The M.S. concentration in Sustainable Waste Management is aimed at professionals interested in industry, government or education careers in what has become the most costly sector of urban management. This list shows the career paths of past MS-ERE alumni.
This concentration is aimed at persons with a minimum background of a B.S. degree in an engineering or equivalent science discipline. The objective is to gain a better understanding of present-day energy infrastructures, their strength and weaknesses and to scope out future technology developments for a world with seemingly insatiable demands for materials and energy. The MS-ERE degree aims at preparing a new generation of engineering professionals who will be involved with the rebuilding of a world materials and energy infrastructure that today is stretched nearly beyond the limits of its capacity.
The program aims at young engineers and active professionals who see their future in the large and international energy development markets. Problems facing the industrialized countries, the emerging economies and the poor countries of the world differ substantially, and a one-size-fits-all solution is unlikely to work.
- EAEE E4001: Industrial Ecology of Earth Resources
- EAEE E4004: Physical Processing and Recovery of Solids
- EAEE E4009: GIS for Resource, Environment, and Infrastructure Management
- EAEE E4011: Industrial Ecology for Manufacturing
- EAEE E4160: Solid and Hazardous Wastes
- EAEE E4150: Air Pollution Prevention and Control
- EAEE E4210 Thermal Processing of Waste and Biomass
- EAEE E4560: Particle Technology
- EAEE E4550: Catalysis for Emission Control
Elective courses should be selected by the student in consultation with his/her faculty advisor
- APMA E4300: Numerical methods
- EAEE E6210 : Quantitative environmental risk analysis
- EAEE E4257: Environmental data analysis and modeling
Pollution Prevention of Air and Water
- EAEE E4003: Introduction to aquatic chemistry
- EAEE E4160: Solid and hazardous waste management
- CIEE E4257: Contaminant transport in subsurface systems
- EAEE E6212: Carbon sequestration
- EAEE E4302: Carbon Capture
- EAEE E4301: Carbon Storage
- EAEE E: Introduction to Carbon Management
- EAEE E4303: Carbon Measurement and Monitoring
- EAEE E4252: Introduction to surface and colloid chemistry
- EAEE E4900: Applied transport and chemical rate phenomena
- EAEE E4901: Environmental microbiology
- MECE E4212 Microelectromechanical systems
- EAEE E4200: Production of inorganic materials
- EAEE E4361: Economics of Earth resource industries
- EAEE E4100: Management and development of water systems
- EAEE E4980: Urban environmental technology and policy
- MSPH P6309: Biochemistry basic to environmental health
- MSPH P6530: Issues and approaches in health policy
- MSPH P6700: Introduction to sociomedical sciences